It’s a Man’s (Celluloid) World: On-Screen Representations of Female Characters in the Top 100 Films of 2014

by Dr. Martha M. Lauzen
http://womenintvfilm.sdsu.edu/files/2014_Its_a_Mans_World_Report.pdf [30-04-2016]

“Females comprised 12% of protagonists featured in the top 100grossing films of 2014. This represents a decline of 3 percentage points from 2013 and a decline of 4 percentage points from 2002.

However, rather than just raising the general population’s awareness of the underrepresentation of female characters, the new study considers the centrality of female characters to the story, as well as whether they have identifiable goals and are portrayed as leaders.

Findings/Behind-the-Scenes Employment and On-Screen Representation
•In films with at least one woman director and/or writer, females comprised 37% of all speaking characters. In films with exclusively
male directors and writers, females accounted for 28% of all speaking characters.
•In films with at least one woman director and/or writer, females comprised 33% of major characters. In films with exclusively male directors and writers, females accounted for 28% of major characters.
•In films with at least one woman director and/or writer, females comprised 39% of protagonists, males 35% of protagonists, and male/female ensembles 26% of protagonists. In films with exclusively male directors and writers, females accounted for 4% of protagonists, males 87% of protagonists, and male/female ensembles 9% of protagonists.